1 showing or characterized by or given to indulgence; "indulgent grandparents" [ant: nonindulgent]
2 tolerant or lenient; "indulgent parents risk spoiling their children"; "procedures are lax and discipline is weak"; "too soft on the children" [syn: lax, lenient, soft]
3 being favorably inclined; "an indulgent attitude"
- /ɪnˈdʌlʤənt/, /In"dVldZ@nt/
- Disposed or prone to indulge, humor, gratify, or give way to one's own or another's desires, etc., or to be compliant, lenient, or forbearing; showing or ready to show favor; favorable; indisposed to be severe or harsh, or to exercise necessary restraint: as, an indulgent parent; to be indulgent to servants.
An indulgence, in Roman Catholic theology, is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. The belief is that indulgences draw on the storehouse of merit acquired by Jesus' sacrifice and the virtues and penances of the saints. They are granted for specific good works and prayers.
Indulgences, and the abuses two distinct consequences follow when a person sins. A mortal sin (one that is grave and is committed knowingly and freely) is equivalent to refusing friendship of God and communion with the only source of eternal life. The loss of eternal life that this rejection entails is called the "eternal punishment" of sin. In addition, every sin, even those that, not being mortal (death-dealing), are called venial (less-serious) sins, cause a turning from God through what the Catechism of the Catholic Church calls an unhealthy attachment to creatures, which must be purified either here on earth, or after death in the state called Purgatory. The resulting need to break this attachment to creatures is another punishment for sin, referred to as "temporal punishment", because, not being a total rejection of God, it is not eternal and can be overcome in time. Even when the sin is forgiven, the associated attachment to creatures may remain. The sinner must "strive by works of mercy and charity, as well as by prayer and the various practices of penance, to put off completely the 'old man' and to put on the 'new man'."
The Catholic doctrine of the Communion of Saints teaches that this work of cleansing or sanctification does not have to be done entirely by the person directly concerned, since all Christians, living and dead, are united as a single body that has Christ as head. The holiness of one profits others, well beyond the harm that the sin of one could cause others. Thus through the communion of saints, recourse not only to the merits of the saints in heaven but above all to those of Christ himself lets the contrite sinner be more promptly and efficaciously purified of the punishments for sin.
In view of the power of binding or loosing granted by Christ, the Church considers that it may administer to those under its jurisdiction the benefits of these merits in consideration of prayer or other pious works undertaken by the faithful.
Since those who have died are also members of the communion of saints, it is the belief of the Catholic Church that the living can help those whose purification from their sins is not yet completed not only by prayer but also by obtaining indulgences for them. Since the Church on earth has no jurisdiction over the dead, indulgences can be gained for them only per modum suffragii, i.e. by an act of intercession. To gain a plenary indulgence, a person must exclude all attachment to sin of any kind, even venial sin, must perform the work or say the prayer for which the indulgence is granted, and must also fulfil the three conditions of sacramental confession, Eucharistic communion and praying for the intentions of the Pope. The minimum condition for gaining a partial indulgence is to be contrite in heart: on this condition, a Catholic who performs the work or recites the prayer in question is granted, through the Church, remission of temporal punishment of the same worth as is obtained by the person's own action.
In response to suggestions made at the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI substantially revised the practical application of the traditional doctrine, making it clear that the Church's aim was not merely to help the faithful make due satisfaction for their sins, but chiefly to bring them to greater fervour of charity; it was for this purpose that he decreed that partial indulgences simply supplement, and to the same degree, the remission that the person performing the indulgenced action has already gained by the charity and contrition with which he does it. (Lent-like forty-day periods) or years of canonical penance. Those who did not understand these terms sometimes misinterpreted them as meaning a reduction of that length of stay in Purgatory.
The abolition of this classification by years and days made it clearer than before that repentance and faith are required not only for remission of eternal punishment for mortal sin but also for remission of temporal punishment for sin. Pope Paul VI wrote: "Indulgences cannot be gained without a sincere conversion of outlook and unity with God".
Actions for which indulgences are grantedThere are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity. These indulgences are partial, and their worth therefore depends on the fervour with which the person performs the recommended actions:
- Raising the mind to God with humble trust when performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulty, and adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation.
- Devoting oneself or one's goods compassionately in a spirit of faith to the service of one's brothers and sisters in need.
- Freely abstaining in a spirit of penance from something licit and pleasant.
- Freely giving open witness to one's faith before others in particular circumstances of everyday life.
Among the particular grants, which, on closer inspection, will be seen to be included in one or more of the four general grants, especially the first, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum draws special attention to four activities for which a plenary indulgence can be gained on any day, though only once a day:
- Adoration of Jesus in the Eucharist for at least half an hour.
- The pious exercise of the Stations of the Cross .
- Recitation of the Rosary or the Akathist in a church or oratory, or in a family, a religious community, an association of the faithful and, in general, when several people come together for an honourable purpose.
- Piously reading or listening to Sacred Scripture for at least half an hour.
A plenary indulgence may also be gained on some occasions, which are not everyday occurrences. They include:
- Receiving, even by radio or television, the blessing given by the Pope Urbi et Orbi (to the city of Rome and to the world) or that which a bishop is authorized give three times a year to the faithful of his diocese.
- Taking part devoutly in the celebration of a day devoted on a world level to a particular religious purpose. Under this heading come the annual celebrations such as the World Day of Prayer for Priestly and Religious Vocations, and occasional celebrations such as World Youth Day.
- Taking part for at least three full days in a spiritual retreat.
- Taking part in some functions during the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity including its conclusion.
The prayers specifically mentioned in the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum are not of the Latin Rite tradition alone, but also from the traditions of the Eastern Catholic Churches, such as the Akathistos, Paraklesis, Evening Prayer, and Prayer for the Faithful Departed (Byzantine), Prayer of Thanksgiving (Armenian), Prayer of the Shrine and the Lakhu Mara (Chaldean), Prayer of Incense and Prayer to Glorify Mary the Mother of God (Coptic), Prayer for the Remission of Sins and Prayer to Follow Christ (Ethiopian), Prayer for the Church, and Prayer of Leave-taking from the Altar (Maronite), and Intercessions for the Faithful Departed (Syrian).
Apart from the recurrences listed in the Enchiridion, special indulgences are granted on occasions of special spiritual significance such as a Jubilee Year or the centenary or similar anniversary of an event such as the apparition of Our Lady at Lourdes.
Of particular significance is the plenary indulgence attached to the Apostolic Blessing that a priest is to impart when giving the sacraments to a person in danger of death, and which, if no priest is available, the Church grants to any rightly disposed Christian at the moment of death, on condition that that person was accustomed to say some prayers during life. In this case the Church itself makes up for the three conditions normally required for a plenary indulgence: sacramental confession, Eucharistic communion and prayer for the Pope's intentions.
History of indulgences
Early and medieval beliefsIn the early church, especially from the third century on, ecclesiastic authorities allowed a confessor or a Christian awaiting martyrdom to intercede for another Christian in order to shorten the other's canonical penance.
The earliest record of a plenary indulgence was Pope Urban II's declaration at the Council of Clermont (1095) that he remitted all penance incurred by crusaders who confessed their sins, considering participation in the crusade equivalent to a complete penance.
Theologians looked to God's mercy, the value of the Church's prayers, and the merits of the saints as the basis on which indulgences could be granted. Around 1230 the Dominican Hugh of St-Cher proposed the idea of a "treasury" at the Church's disposal, consisting of the infinite merits of Christ and the immeasurable abundance of the saints' merits, a thesis that was demonstrated by great scholastics such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas and remains the basis for the theological explanation of indulgences.
Protestant ReformationThe false doctrine and scandalous conduct of the "pardoners" were an immediate occasion of the Protestant Reformation. The Ninety-Five Theses not only denounced such transactions as worldly but denied the Pope's right to grant pardons on God's behalf in the first place: the only thing indulgences guaranteed, Luther said, was an increase in profit and greed, because the pardon of the Church was in God's power alone.
While Luther did not deny the Pope’s right to grant pardons for penance imposed by the Church, he made it clear that preachers who claimed indulgences absolved buyers from all punishments and granted them salvation were in error.
Council of TrentOn 16 July 1562, the Council of Trent suppressed the office of quaestores and reserved the collection of alms to two canon members of the chapter (religion), who were to receive no remuneration for their work; it also reserved the publication of indulgences to the bishop of the diocese. Then on 4 December 1563, in its final session, it addressed the question of indulgences directly, declaring them "most salutary for the Christian people", decreeing that " that all evil gains for the obtaining of them be wholly abolished", and instructing bishops to be on the watch for any abuses concerning them.
A few years later, in 1567, Pope Pius V cancelled all grants of indulgences involving any fees or other financial transactions. After the Council of Trent, Clement VIII established a commission of Cardinals to deal with indulgences according to the mind of the Council. It continued its work during the pontificate of Paul V and published various bulls and decrees on the matter. But only Clement IX established a true Congregation of Indulgences (and Relics) with a Brief of 6 July 1669. In a Motu Proprio of 28 January 1904, Pius X joined the Congregation of Indulgences with that of Rites, but with the restructuring of the Roman Curia in 1908 all matters regarding indulgences was assigned to the Holy Office. In a Motu Proprio of 25 March 1915, Benedict XV transferred the Holy Office's Section for Indulgences to the Apostolic Penitentiary, but maintained the Holy Office's responsibility for matters regarding the doctrine of indulgences.
Eastern Orthodox ChurchBecause of differences in the underlying doctrine of salvation, indulgences for the remission of temporal punishment of sin do not exist in Eastern Orthodoxy, but until the twentieth century there existed in some places a similar practice of absolution certificates (συγχωροχάρτια - synchorochartia). While some of these certificates were connected with any patriarch's decrees lifting for the living or the dead some serious ecclesiastical penalty, including excommunication, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, with the approval of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, had the sole privilege, because of the expense of maintaining the Holy Places and paying the many taxes levied on them, of distributing such documents in large numbers to pilgrims or sending them elsewhere, sometimes with a blank space for the name of the beneficiary, living or dead, an individual or a whole family, who could then be remembered at the altar.
Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem Dositheos Notaras (1641-1707) wrote: "It is an established custom and ancient tradition, known to all, that the Most Holy Patriarchs give the absolution certificate (συγχωροχάρτιον - synchorochartion) to the faithful people … they have granted them from the beginning and still do."
A Russian Orthodox source says that these certificates were in use among Greek Orthodox until the middle of the twentieth century, and were "certificates which absolved from sins, which anyone could obtain, often for a specified sum of money. The absolution granted by these papers, according to Christos Yannaras, had no connection with any participation of the faithful in the Mystery of Penance, nor in the Mystery of the Eucharist". The same source interprets the Western indulgence also as absolution from sin, not as remission of temporal punishment.
- Pope Paul VI: Apostolic Constitution Indulgentiarum Doctrina whereby the Revision of Sacred Indulgences is Promulgated, 1 January 1967
- Code of Canon Law (1983) concerning Indulgences
- Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, 4th edition, 1999 (Latin) (English translation: "Manual of Indulgences", published by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, ISBN 1-57455-474-3)
- English translation of Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, 3rd edition (1986)
- Pope John Paul II: General Audience talk on indulgences, 29 September 1999
- Catechism of the Catholic Church: Indulgences
- Enrico dal Covolo: The Historical Origin of Indulgences
- Paul S. Czarnota: Indulgences
- A Primer on Indulgences
- Myths about Indulgences
indulgent in Arabic: صكوك الغفران
indulgent in Bosnian: Oprost
indulgent in Bulgarian: Индулгенция
indulgent in Czech: Odpustek
indulgent in Danish: Aflad
indulgent in German: Ablass
indulgent in Modern Greek (1453-): Συγχωροχάρτι
indulgent in Spanish: Indulgencia
indulgent in Esperanto: Indulgenco
indulgent in French: Indulgence (catholicisme)
indulgent in Galician: Indulxencia
indulgent in Korean: 대사 (가톨릭)
indulgent in Croatian: Oprost
indulgent in Indonesian: Indulgensi
indulgent in Italian: Indulgenza
indulgent in Hebrew: כתב מחילה
indulgent in Georgian: ინდულგენცია
indulgent in Latin: Indulgentia
indulgent in Lithuanian: Indulgencija
indulgent in Limburgan: Aaflaot
indulgent in Dutch: Aflaat
indulgent in Japanese: 贖宥状
indulgent in Norwegian: Avlat
indulgent in Norwegian Nynorsk: Avlat
indulgent in Polish: Odpust
indulgent in Portuguese: Indulgência
indulgent in Romanian: Indulgenţă (creştinism)
indulgent in Russian: Индульгенция
indulgent in Simple English: Indulgence
indulgent in Slovenian: Cerkveni odpustki
indulgent in Serbian: Индулгенција
indulgent in Finnish: Anekauppa
indulgent in Swedish: Avlatsbrev
indulgent in Turkish: Endüljans
indulgent in Ukrainian: Індульгенція
indulgent in Chinese: 贖罪券
Spartan, accepting, accommodating, accommodative, admissive, affable, agreeable, allowing, amiable, armed with patience, attentive, benevolent, benign, benignant, bibulous, broad-minded, charitable, clement, complaisant, compliant, consenting, considerate, cosseting, crapulent, crapulous, decent, delicate, disciplined, easy, easygoing, endurant, enduring, excessive, excusing, extravagant, extreme, forbearant, forbearing, forgiving, freethinking, generous, gluttonous, gracious, heedful, helpful, immoderate, incontinent, inordinate, intemperate, kind, kindly, latitudinarian, lax, lenient, liberal, libertarian, libertine, long-suffering, longanimous, magnanimous, merciful, mindful, mindful of others, nonprohibitive, obliging, open-minded, overindulgent, overindulging, overpermissive, pampering, patient, patient as Job, permissive, permitting, persevering, philosophical, prodigal, regardful, relaxed, self-controlled, self-indulgent, solicitous, stoic, suffering, swinish, tactful, thoughtful, tolerant, tolerating, tolerative, too much, unbigoted, unbridled, unconstrained, uncontrolled, understanding, undisciplined, unfrugal, unlimited, unmeasured, unprohibitive, unrestrained, unthrifty, well-disposed